A criticism of Lean Software Development is hard to find. While I think it offers a number of useful ideas and tools, I am somewhat sceptic towards the widespread use of metaphors from manufacturing found in Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit.. and elsewhere.
Metaphors are powerful in the way that they allow us to transfer insights from one area of experience to another. However, for these insights to be valid it is required that the metaphor has the same characteristics and dynamics as the system it is supposed to model. Or to put it more bluntly: Lean will solve all your problems to the extent that your software development organisation is like a manufacturing plant...
It is not all bad, though. The assembly line model may fail to capture all aspects of software development - but it does bring issues such as queues and waste into focus and provide a framework for discussing and adressing them. So even if Lean is not the final answer to everything it remains a useful tool for certain applications.
However, if software development is a field in its own right why do we then always have to use metaphors and analogues to describe it? It is clear that there is much to be learned from viewing software development as .. well, software development.